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  • 英语阅读理解:单词或词组比较生僻难懂
  • 发布时间:2021-05-27 23:39 | 作者:admin | 来源:未知 | 浏览:
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  •   如果一个单词或词组比较生僻难懂,后面往往会给出它的定义,其形式往往是判断句,同位语等。例如:
     
      Ecology,the relation of plants and living crea?鄄tures to each other and to their surroundings,at?鄄tracts many experts.
     
      上句中“Ecology”是个生僻的单词,但我们从其后的同位语中很容易猜出它的词义为“生态学”。
     
      2.类比
     
      阅读文章中有时会出现类比,利用熟悉的词通过类比关系来推测生词的含义,是解题的有效方法之一。如下例所示:
     
      As economist Thomas Schelling explains,“Everybody ranks himself high in qualities he values:careful drivers give weight to care,skilled drivers give weight to skill,and those who are polite give weight to courtesy,”This way everyone ranks high on his own scale.
     
      解析:从经济学家Thomas Schelling的话中我们可以看出:careful的司机注重care,skilled的司机注重skill,因此可以推断出polite的司机一定是注重politeness的,文章中没有出现politeness,而是出现了courtesy,由此可以得出结论:politeness和courtesy一定是同义词。
     
      3.同义词和反义词
     
      在文章中经常在生词的同一句中或上下文会有同义词或反义词出现,只要知道其中一个词的含义,问题就迎刃而解了。例如:
     
      The incipient stage of disease can be treated more easily than the later stages.
     
      上句中的“incipient stage”和“later stages”意思相反,因此很容易判断“incipient”的意思为“早期的”。
     
      4.相关信息
     
      有时,一个单词或词组的含义需要从上下文的相关信息来判断。上下文的相关信息越多越详细,就越容易准确地判断词义。例如:
     
      Can we pay too much attention to detail?Absolutely.Perfectionists struggle over little things at the cost of something larger than they work toward.“To keep from losing the forest for the trees”,says Charles Garfield,associate professor at the Universi?鄄ty of California,San Francisco,“we must constantly ask ourselves how the details we‘re working on fit into the larger picture.If they don’t,we should drop them and move to something else.”
     
      问题:
     
      The word perfectionists(para.3,Line 1)refers to those who ________.
     
      A)demand others to get everything absolutely right
     
      B)know how to adjust their goals according to the circumstances
     
      C)pay too much attention to details only to lose their major objectives
     
      D)are capable of achieving perfect results in whatever they do
     
      解析
     
      答案是C.文章在第三段第二句话中提到“perfectionists(完美主义者)”一词,我们可以通过文章的上下文,判断出该词的含义。文章在第三段第二句话提到该词后,立即指出了完美主义者的行为,即“在小事情上下工夫,而付出的代价远远超过了他们所从事的工作的价值。”与C项对该词的解释正好相符。第一句“pay too much attention to detail”,也提供了对C项的佐证。
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